Apache Dubbo has inbuilt tracing through Micrometer Observations and Micrometer Tracing.

1. Adding Micrometer Observation To Your Project

In order to add Micrometer to the classpath and add metrics for Dubbo you need to add the dubbo-metrics-api dependency as shown below:


Thanks to the usage of Micrometer Observations Dubbo got instrumented once, but depending on the setup will allow emission of metrics, tracer or other signals via custom ObservationHandlers. Please read the documentation under docs/observation for more information.

2. Adding Micrometer Tracing Bridge To Your Project

In order to start creating spans for Dubbo based projects a bridge between Micrometer Tracing and an actual Tracer is required.

NOTE: Tracer is a library that handles lifecycle of spans (e.g. it can create, start, stop, sample, report spans).

Micrometer Tracing supports Brave and OpenTelemetry as Tracers as shown below:

<!-- Brave Tracer -->

<!-- OpenTelemetry Tracer -->

3. Adding Micrometer Tracing Exporter To Your Project

After having added the Tracer, an exporter (also known as a reporter) is required. It’s a component that will export the finished span and send it to a reporting system. Micrometer Tracer natively supports Tanzu Observability by Wavefront and Zipkin as shown below:

Tanzu Observability by Wavefront


OpenZipkin Zipkin with Brave


OpenZipkin Zipkin with OpenTelemetry


An OpenZipkin URL sender dependency to send out spans to Zipkin via a URLConnectionSender


You can read more about tracing setup this documentation, under docs/tracing.

4. Setting Up The Observation Registry

To use Micrometer Observation an ObservationRegistry needs setting up. In essence ObservationRegistry requires passing of ObservationHandlers that will react to lifecycle events of observations such as start, stop etc. There are 3 main types of handlers

  • MeterObservationHandler - metrics related handlers (coming from micrometer-core)
  • TracingObservationHandler - tracing related handlers (coming from micrometer-tracing)
  • ObservationHandler - any other handler

ObservationRegistry will iterate over all handlers and will pick all of the matching ones. It’s good practice to put all MeterObservationHandlers into one FirstMatchingCompositeObservationHandler and all TracingObservationHandlers into another composite so that only one gets executed respectively. Example of such setup can be found below (an up to date copy is maintained here under docs/tracing).


// [Brave component] Example of using a SpanHandler. SpanHandler is a component
// that gets called when a span is finished. Here we have an example of setting it
// up with sending spans
// in a Zipkin format to the provided location via the UrlConnectionSender
// (through the <io.zipkin.reporter2:zipkin-sender-urlconnection> dependency)
// Another option could be to use a TestSpanHandler for testing purposes.
SpanHandler spanHandler = ZipkinSpanHandler

// [Brave component] CurrentTraceContext is a Brave component that allows you to
// retrieve the current TraceContext.
StrictCurrentTraceContext braveCurrentTraceContext = StrictCurrentTraceContext.create();

// [Micrometer Tracing component] A Micrometer Tracing wrapper for Brave's
// CurrentTraceContext
CurrentTraceContext bridgeContext = new BraveCurrentTraceContext(this.braveCurrentTraceContext);

// [Brave component] Tracing is the root component that allows to configure the
// tracer, handlers, context propagation etc.
Tracing tracing = Tracing.newBuilder().currentTraceContext(this.braveCurrentTraceContext).supportsJoin(false)
        // For Baggage to work you need to provide a list of fields to propagate
                        .remote(BaggageField.create("from_span_in_scope 1")))
                        .remote(BaggageField.create("from_span_in_scope 2")))

// [Brave component] Tracer is a component that handles the life-cycle of a span
brave.Tracer braveTracer = tracing.tracer();

// [Micrometer Tracing component] A wrapper for Brave's Propagator
Propagator propagator = new BravePropagator(tracing);

// [Micrometer Tracing component] A Micrometer Tracing wrapper for Brave's Tracer
Tracer tracer = new BraveTracer(braveTracer, bridgeContext, new BraveBaggageManager());

// ----- MICROMETER CORE -----

MeterRegistry meterRegistry = new SimpleMeterRegistry();


ObservationRegistry observationRegistry = ObservationRegistry.create();

// Adding metrics handler
observationRegistry.observationConfig().observationHandler(new TracingAwareMeterObservationHandler<>(new DefaultMeterObservationHandler(meterRegistry), tracer));

// Adding tracing handlers
                .observationHandler(new ObservationHandler.FirstMatchingCompositeObservationHandler(new PropagatingReceiverTracingObservationHandler<>(tracer, propagator), new PropagatingSenderTracingObservationHandler<>(tracer, propagator), new DefaultTracingObservationHandler(tracer)));

// ----- DUBBO -----

ApplicationModel applicationModel = ApplicationModel.defaultModel();
// reuse the applicationModel in your system

By using the new consumer and provider Dubbo filters that use Micrometer Observation, after setting up the registry, metrics and traces would be created and spans would be sent to Zipkin upon their closing.

IMPORTANT! Staring from Spring Boot 3 the whole Micrometer Tracer, Micrometer Core and Micrometer Observation setup happens out of the box. You don’t need to manually set it up.

5. Customizing Observation Filters

To customize the tags present in metrics (low cardinality tags) and in spans (low and high cardinality tags) you should create your own versions of DubboServerObservationConvention (server side) and DubboClientObservationConvention (client side) and register them in the ApplicationModel’s BeanFactory. To reuse the existing ones check DefaultDubboServerObservationConvention (server side) and DefaultDubboClientObservationConvention (client side).

6. Sample Setup

Since Micrometer Observation is a new feature in Micrometer 1.10, Spring Boot 2 doesn’t have it configured out of the box (SB2 uses Micrometer 1.9). In this this demo sample you can see how Micrometer Observation is manually set up together with OpenTelemetry Bridge.

Last modified January 31, 2023: Update (#1954) (902bc7e73be)